Be able to give and complete and detailed analysis of realist theory; from the concept of international anarchism to the international system being static and perenially conflict-prone to the suggested factors that make it conflict-prone (Morgenthau, Waltz), the objective of states in seeking power (Waltz, Mearshimer) and the criteria for military, economic, geographic and political power. Remember, I will be wanting details from all these items with regard to realist theory. So, please be elaborate and complete.
Please at least one page or more of content answering the above thoroughly.
ESSAY WRITTEN SOLUTION
Realist Theory in International Relations
Realism or the realist theory is a critical point of discussion in international relations. According to the realist theory, states are the leading players that hold power in international politics. Thus, the thesis contends that the realities of international politics are solely based on the actions of individual states rather than decisions made by selected international organizations or leaders (Lee). The four assumptions in realism are that international relations are based on state-centrism, anarchy, egoism, and power politics. State-centrism assumes that all states are the key or central actors in international politics. Although international organizations place leaders to guide global activities, states are still the prominent decision-makers (Lee). Anarchy means an absence of an international government that rules over or controls interactions or decisions. Realism also believes that states are egoistic or rational, therefore, act in rational self-interest in all their international relations. Finally, all states in the global system seek power through military dominance, political will, or economics to maintain relevance for self-preservation.
As depicted by the realist theory, international anarchism shows that the states are the primary players and decision-makers. In economic struggle or political upheaval cases, realists believe that they can not depend on anyone but themselves to maintain stability and security. Realists also believe that the international system is perennially conflict-prone due to human nature. Realism asserts that conflict is a part of human nature; hence, international systems absorb human aggression in anarchical systems, encouraging them to seek power (Morgenthau 201). Conflict is imperative since all states have power-searching and similar goals in mind. Realism also contends that states seek power for self-interests such as growth or self-preservation. States also seek authority to maintain their territories and avoid the loss of political autonomy in international decision-making.
Realists believe that a state requires military power to ensure constant protection from other states and national security. Therefore, being equipped with nuclear weapons and armies reduces a country’s weakness in the eyes of international groups. According to Waltz (99), structural and classical realists place military power on a higher hierarchy than economic and geographic power because military strength earns respect and fear from other states. Nevertheless, all states act out of egoism (self-interest); thus, economic power is imperative to place them on a higher hierarchy in international relations.
Morgenthau, Hans J. Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1954.
Lee, Tony. “When Hard Power Shrinks: The Midlife Crisis of Realism.” I-Enternational Relations. 2022. //www.e-ir.info/2018/01/14/when-hard-power-shrinks-the-midlife-crisis-of-realism/ Accessed March 16th 2022